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Defensive Three Seconds:
A defensive player is not allowed inside the key area for more than three seconds unless he is guarding the player with the ball or is actively guarding any opponent. To be considered actively guarding, a defender must be within an arms length of an opponent. If an offensive player moves through the key, the defender must be within an arms length, and also move along with the offensive player. He can not just stand there and put his arms out to get a new three second count.

When a player shoots the ball, a defender may not touch the ball after it reaches its highest point. If so, the shot shall be ruled successful. A defender also can not touch a shot after it has hit the backboard and is going towards the rim, whether it is going up or down. Once the ball is on or directly above the rim, no player can touch the ball. If an offensive player is guilty in any of the above circumstances, basket interference shall be ruled and no points can be scored. If it is a defender, two or three points shall be scored depending on the type of field goal attempted.

Forearm Fouls:
A defender may not be in contact with an extended forearm to an offensive player with the ball at any time above the free throw line extended. Below the free throw line extended and outside the lower defensive box, a defender may use an extended forearm to the back/side of an opponent with the ball to maintain his legally obtained position. Inside the lower defensive box, a defender may use an extended forearm at anytime to maintain his position against a payer with the ball. At no time may the forearm be used to dislodge, reroute or impede the offensive player.

Hand Checking:
A defender may not place and keep his hand on an opponent unless he is in the area near the basket and the offensive player has his back to the basket. A defender may momentarily touch an opponent with his hand anywhere on the court as long as it does not affect the opponent’s movement (speed, quickness, balance, rhythm).

Clear Path to the Basket:
If a fast break starts in a team’s backcourt and a defender fouls any offensive player when the team is going to score an easy basket, a clear path foul has occurred. When the foul happens, no defender can be ahead of the ball where he could establish a position between the ball and the basket.

Away-From-The-Play Foul:
Once the game clock reaches 2:00 in the fourth period or 2:00 of overtime periods, any defensive foul prior to the ball being released during a throw-in shall be penalized with one free throw by any player in the game and retaining the ball at the same spot. Also during this time, the same penalty would apply if a defender takes a foul against an offensive player who is not part of the action. This is to prevent teams from fouling players who are not the best free throw shooters as a strategy to gain an advantage in the critical part of a game.

Flagrant Fouls:
These fouls are considered unnecessary and/or excessive. There are two types of flagrant foul, 1 and 2. A flagrant foul 1 is unnecessary contact. This is usually when a defensive player winds-up and makes hard contact with the offensive player or makes hard contact and then follows through. A flagrant foul 2 has the components of a flagrant foul 1 and is unnecessary and excessive contact. This usually has a wind-up motion, hard contact and a follow through. Both fouls carry a penalty of two free throws and the team that was fouled retains possession. A flagrant foul 2 also results in an ejection of the player committing the foul once it is reviewed by instant replay. A player also is ejected if he commits two flagrant foul penalty 1’s in the same game.

The League Office will consider the following factors (as well as any other relevant facts and circumstances) in determining whether to classify a foul as Flagrant "1" or Flagrant "2", to reclassify a flagrant foul, or to impose a fine and/or suspension on the player involved:

1. The severity of the contact;
2. Whether or not the player was making a
legitimate basketball play (e.g., whether a player is making a legitimate effort to block a shot; note, however, that a foul committed during a block attempt can still be considered flagrant if other criteria are present such as recklessness and hard contact to the head);
3. Whether, on a foul committed with a player’s arm or hand, the fouling player wound up and/or followed through after making contact;
4. The potential for injury resulting from contact (e.g., a blow to the head and a foul committed while a player is in a vulnerable position);
5. The severity of any injury suffered by the offended player; and
6. The outcome of the contact (e.g., whether it led to an altercation).

Illegal Screens/Picks:
A screen or pick is when an offensive player gets to a legal position on the court in the path of a defender for the purpose of slowing down the defender or making him change directions. An illegal screen/pick is when the offensive player does not get into a legal position. When picking a stationary opponent from the backside, you must give that player a step. When picking a stationary player from the front or side, a player can go right next to him as long as he does not make illegal contact. If the opponent is moving, you must get to your position and give him an opportunity to stop and/or change direction. The speed of the player will determine the distance. You cannot just jump in front of a moving opponent at the last second.

A block/charge foul occurs when a defender tries to get in front of his man to stop him from going in that direction. If he does not get into a legal defensive position and contact occurs, it is a blocking foul. If he gets to a legal position and the offensive player runs into him it is an offensive foul. In both situations, if the contact is marginal, no foul may be called. To get into a legal position defending against the dribble, the defender needs to get his torso directly in the path and beat him to the spot. On a drive to the basket, the defender must get to his position before the shooter starts his upward shooting motion. For off ball players, the defender must get into position and allow enough opportunity for the offensive player to stop and/or change direction. All ties are considered blocks as the defender did not beat him to the spot but arrived at the same time.

Restricted Area:
The restricted area (RA) is the area within the arched line on the court located below the rim. Its purpose is to stop secondary defenders from taking a position under the basket in an attempt to draw the offensive foul when a player is driving to the basket. If an offensive player drives past his primary defender on the way to the basket and a secondary defender comes over, he must establish a legal position outside the RA to draw an offensive foul. If the drive starts inside the Lower Defensive Box (LDB – this is the area from the bottom tip of the free throw circle to the endline between the two 3’ posted-up marks), the secondary defender is legally allowed to be positioned inside the RA. The restricted are also does not apply if the secondary defender jumps in attempting to block the shot, the offensive player leads with his leg or knee in an unnatural motion or uses his off arm to prevent the defender from blocking his shot. The RA does not extend from below the backboard to the baseline. Therefore, if a player drives the baseline and is not attempting to go directly to the rim, the RA does not apply.

To start a dribble after establishing a pivot foot, the ball must be released from the player’s hand before his pivot foot leaves the floor or he has committed a traveling violation. A player who receives the ball while moving is allowed a two count rhythm but must release the ball prior to the third step touching the floor. When ending his dribble a player may use a two count rhythm in coming to a stop, passing or shooting. A player who fall s to the floor while holding the ball or while coming to a stop may not gain an advantage by rolling on the floor. A player who attempts a shot may not be the first to touch the ball if it fails to touch the backboard, rim or another player. If a player comes to a stop on the count of one when both feet are on the floor or touch the floor simultaneously, he may pivot using either foot as his pivot. If he alights with both feet he must release the ball before either foot touches the floor. If a player has one foot on the floor or lands with one foot first to the floor, he may only pivot with that foot. Once that foot is lifted from the floor to shoot or pass it may not return until the ball is released. If a player jumps off one foot on the count of one he may land with both feet simultaneously for count two. In this situation, the player may not pivot with either foot and if one or both feet leave the floor the ball must be released before either return to the floor. When a player gathers the ball he may not step consecutively with the same foot, as in a hopping motion.

Marginal/Incidental Contact:
While some contact may occur during a game, it does not mean a foul has been committed. Contact which is incidental to an effort by a player to play an opponent or to perform normal defensive or offensive movements should not be considered illegal. Players are allowed normal body contact with opponents when reaching for a loose ball if they both have the same opportunity to get the ball. This type of play shall be ruled incidental if neither illegally gains an advantage. The hand is considered “Part of the ball” when it is in contact with the ball. It is not a foul if a defensive player makes normal contact with a players hand when it is in contact with the ball.

A player who is holding the ball and fumbles it out of his control may recover the ball. If his pivot foot moves to recover the ball, he must then pass or shoot the ball. If he fumbles and recovers it without moving his pivot foot and before the ball touches the floor, he retains his status before the fumble. Therefore, when a player jumps to shoot and the ball slips out of his hands, he may recover the ball.